A capacitor is needed right after they register to make a compact circuit board. You will see its presence on every circuit board otherwise the circuit is incomplete. Today I will show you through this post Capacitor Types with Images.
Without circuit board, fan, motor, capacitor are fitted. These come in different sizes, large, medium, small, and very small. What is the reason for this difference? Yes, there are reasons of course.
This post is basically for those who are now students in the electronic world. The post should be read at the end to get a complete idea about capacitors. I hope there will be no more questions about capacitors.
And if you don’t read in the end, the value of the current new capacitor will remain unknown to you. Because it was very easy to understand the value of the previous capacitor, now it is not. The current capacitor value (ex: 2N104j) is a bit difficult, it takes a while to understand.
But I will show you a very simple method by which you can easily determine the value of a capacitor. The post (Types of capacitors with images) must be followed at the end.
What is Capacitor?
The first thing you need to know is what is a capacitor? What’s in it? The capacitor is a type of passive electronic component with two conducting plates. These two conducting plates are separated by a type of insulating material. These insulating materials are called dielectric constant.
Dielectric constants are made of different types of materials. Such as plastic, rubber, paper, glass, etc. That is, it is made of electrically conductive materials which makes the two plates separate.
How does a capacitor work?
Let’s see how a capacitor works or what is its function? We use it depending on the function of the capacitor. Those works are as follows:
- The main function of a capacitor is to store and discharge the charge. Whenever the capacitor is supplied, the capacitor is charged and re-passes the charge at a later time. How the capacitor gets discharged again after charging.
- Disrupts DC current.
- Passing AC current.
- Filters the signal,
- Separates low frequency and high frequency,
- Stabilizes voltage changes, That is, suppose the voltage in supply is sometimes decreasing and sometimes increasing. Capacitors are used to pass this voltage drop steadily.
CAPACITORS With Images
What are the capacitor types with the images below? It is mainly of two types, fixed capacitors, and variable capacitors. One cannot be changed, the other can be changed. These two condensers are of many types.
Fixed Capacitor Types with Images
As you can see from the name, the value of these types of capacitors cannot be changed. This capacitor works within the value that is given on this capacitor. Even if you want to, you can’t increase or decrease its value.
- Fixed capacitors are of two types –
- Polarized Capacitor
- Non-polarized Capacitor
- The types of condensers that have positive and negative pins are polarized condensers. These are usually used in the DC power section, where there are positive and negative connections. It is of two types –
- Electrolytic capacitors
Friends, now we will discuss electrolytic capacitor or aluminum oxide capacitor. It tends to have much lower insulation resistance. It is used on the circuit board where the voltage passed through the capacitor of the circuit does not return to the back.
Such capacitors are basically used in the DC section of the circuit. It is used on circuit boards where the capacitance value of the capacitor is higher. Take a look at the image for example. Electrolytic capacitor again three types –
- Aluminum:- In that electrolytic capacitor, aluminum material is used as the plate, it is called an aluminum electrolytic capacitor. And the dielectric inside it can be made of any material (solid, liquid, gas). Its value is made from 1 MFD to 47000 MFD and it is available very cheaply. It also has decay, which means that the older it gets, the drier the dielectric of the capacitor. As a result, its value will decrease as it comes. It is used to improve the power factor and is used for coupling and decoupling in different circuits.
- Tantalum:- Just as aluminum capacitors contain aluminum dielectric, so do tantalum dielectric, hence it is called tantalum electrolytic capacitor. However, it has many advantages, such as –
- Smaller capacitors can store much higher capacity capacitance.
- You get the value equal to 680 MFD aluminum capacitor, in this small TANTALUM capacitor.
- The biggest advantage of this capacitor is that it can withstand very high temperatures (55 degrees to 125 degrees).
- It costs a little more money to buy Tantalum electrolytic capacitors.
2️⃣ Super Capacitors
As you can see from the name, it is a very high-level capacitor, it is called an ultracapacitor. The capacitance value of this capacitor is much higher, such as 1 / To 12000 F. The voltage rating of this capacitor is very low (2.5v to 2.7v). Another aspect of this is that it delivers its charges very quickly. Three types of super electrolytic capacitors – double-layered, pseudo and hybrid Capacitor।
- This capacitor has no positive or negative terminals, the two terminals are the same. Hence they are used in both AC or DC circuits and for this reason they are called non-polarized capacitors. The capacitance of this type of capacitor is very low but its operating voltage is very high. It is of three types –
- Ceramic Condenser
- Mica condenser
- Film Condenser
Ceramic capacitors What types of capacitors, you can understand from the images. This type of capacitor is called ceramic capacitor because it is made of a material called ceramic. It is of two types, disk type, and multilayer ceramic or MLC capacitor.
Disc-type ceramic capacitors are commonly available in two colors, brown and blue. Brown capacitors are used at low voltages and blue capacitors at high voltages.
A capacitor made of dielectric mica material is called a mica ceramic capacitor. The way to recognize this capacitor is that the middle part of it is slightly curved. There are two types of capacitors, clamped mica condenser and silver mica condenser.
However, most silver mica condensers are used. Its electrode, made of silver and dielectric, made of mica. Their operating voltage rating is very high, up to 10,000 volts. But its capacitance range is low, 47pf to 3000 pf.
- These are usually the below circuit boards used.
- Resonance Circuit
- Broadcasting Equipment Circuit
- Modern Electronic Circuit
- High voltage inverter Circuit
The shape of the film capacitor is rectangular. This capacitor is of two types, metalized capacitor, and foil capacitor. The maximum capacity of this capacitor is up to 100pf. Its dielectric is made with different types of materials. Such as – paper, plastic, polyester, polymer, etc.
- This capacitor is divided into many parts depending on the material of the dielectric.
- Paper Capacitor
- PC etc.
- A capacitor whose capacitance can be changed as desired is called a variable capacitor. For example, the tuner used to change the frequency of the radio is a type of variable capacitor. There are two types of this capacitor –
- Electrically controlled Condenser
- Mechanically controlled Condenser
It has a capacitor and a diode called a varicap or varactor diode. This is controlled by applying a revised voltage at the junction of this capacitor. This capacitor is mainly used – power factor correction, a frequency filter, high pass, and low pass filter, a motor starter, an oscillator circuit, etc.
- This capacitor is basically of two types – the tuning capacitor and the trimmer capacitor.
- Tunning capacitor:- Tuning capacitor is mainly used for tuning. The dielectric in it is air or mica. Tuning capacitors are used to tune the frequency on the radio.
- Trimmer Capacitor:- Ceramic is used along with air as the dielectric of the trimmer capacitor. A screwdriver or knob is used to adjust it. A big advantage of this is that it is small in size and can be easily set to PCB.
Symbol of Capacitors
The capacitor symbol is given on the PCB board, there is no name. It is impossible to make a circuit without knowing the symbol of a capacitor. Because the more capacitors there are, the more symbols there are different symbols of different capacitors. I have given you that idea through the image below. Symbols, images of different types of capacitors, I gave separately
Capacitor Value Calculate
Some of the things I discussed above may not be what you need. But this time I will show that you need it very much or helpful for you. Because there are many values written on the capacitor, if you do not understand them, you will have a big problem.
Read the technique I will show very carefully, then use the capacitor. Here is an example of each, calculate the value of the capacitor from that formula. The capacitor codes you see in the formula are the values of the current capacitors. Such as 2N 222J or 2N 474K etc.
Specifications of Common Capacitor
|Types||CAP RANGE||ESR||LEAKAGE||VOLTAGE RATING||TEMPERATURE|
|Ceramic||pF to uf||Low||medium||high||-55°c to +125°c|
|pF to uf||low|
(0.01 to 01 ohms)
|low||high||-55°c to +125°c|
|Plastic Film (polyethylene polystyrene)||few uFs||Medium||medium||high||varies|
(0.5 to 5 ohms)
|low||lowest||-55°c to +125°c|
(0.01 to 0.5 ohms)
|low||low||-55°c to +125°c|
|Aluminium Electrolytic||high uFs||high|
(0.05 to 2 ohms)
Discussed all types of capacitors as much as possible, hopefully, your duty is clear. If not, please comment or if you have any questions, you can also say so. If there is a request for a post, please tell me, I will explain it well with the images.